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Cooperative Principle in Pragmatics
Cooperative Principle in Pragmatic

Cooperative Principle in Pragmatics

 

Cooperative Principle in Pragmatics

 

 

 

  1. Definition of Cooperative Principle in Pragmatics

Cooperative principle in Pragmatics is a principle used in the analysis of conversation which status that speakers try to cooperate with each other when communicating, in particular, they try to be informative, truthful, relevant, and clear. Listeners normally assume that a speaker is following these conventions. In discourse studies the cooperative principle and its maxims are often referred to as they provide a lucid description of how listeners (and readers) can distill information from an utterance even though that information has not been mentioned outright.

 

  1. Theory of Cooperative Principle in Pragmatics

The English language philosopher Paul Grice proposes that in ordinary conversation, speakers and hearers share a cooperative principle. Speakers shape their utterances to be understood by hearers. In this analysis, the subject is language that used to communicate by conversation and monolog. Such of the rules were the convention that helps speaker and hearer to prevent misunderstanding in the conversation.

Grice recognizes that speakers communicate more than just the words they say. Speakers can say one thing and manage to mean something else or some additional thing. This is called conversational implicature. By using the term “implicature”, Grice wanted to emphasize that it is not a logical implication. The addition of the word “conversational” denotes that the derivations being dealt with are an essential part of the information –transfer process in conversations.

Yule  (1985: 46) said that the word principles implies regularity exists in the  use of language in communication, and this regularity derives from the fact that people are  members of social groups and follow general patterns of behavior  expected within the group. To identify a general cooperative principle, general principles thought to underline the efficient use of language called maxims of conversation, or conversational maxims. Grice (2006: 21) put forward four maxims that stem from the Cooperative Principle. They are maxim of quantity, maxim of quality, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner

So based on the characteristics cooperative principle by Grice above, the writer has opinion that Cooperative Principle is a principle used in the analysis of conversation which status that speakers try to cooperate with each other when communicating, in particular, they try to be informative, truthful, relevant, and clear. Listeners normally assume that a speaker is following these conventions. In discourse studies the cooperative principle and its maxims are often referred to as they provide a lucid description of how listeners (and readers) can distill information from an utterance even though that information has not been mentioned outright.

 

  1. Contribution Paul Grice about Cooperative Principle in Pragmatics

Cooperative Principle by Grice makes speaker conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which the speaker are engaged. And the maxims of CP are Quantity; 1) make speaker’s contribution as informative as is required, 2) Do not make speaker’s more informative than is required; Quality: 1) Do not say what speaker’s believe to be false; 2) Do not say that for which speaker’s lack adequate evidence. Relation; 1) be relevant; Manner 1) Avoid obscurity of expression, 2) Avoid ambiguity, 3) Be brief, 4) orderly.

Klik Here : Maxim of Quality

              : Maxim of Quantity 

              : Maxim of Manner

 

 

 

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