Definition of Contrastive Analysis
Contrastive Analysis is one of the methods that can be used for helping People who learn other language in finding some differences and similarities between source language and target language that usually led to some difficulties in learning process encountered by the learner. It is Pertaining to the study of the similarities and differences between languages or dialects without reference to their origins.It shows us that contrastive constitutes a process to find both similarities and differences between languages contrasted. Moreover, Fisiak roughly defined “Contrastive Analysis is a sub discipline of linguistics that is deals with the comparison of two or more languages in order to determine both the differences and similarities that hold between them.
Then, the similar definition found in A Glossary of Applied Linguistic by Alan Davies, he simply stated that Contrastive Analysis makes comparison between source language and target language. From the etymology definition above, it seems that Contrastive Analysis constitutes the process of study two languages concerned their differences and similarities in particular aspect in order to grasp the aspect itself. Actually the objective of the comparison may vary. Language comparison is of great interest in a theoretical as well as an applied perspective. It reveals what is general and what is language specific and is therefore important both for the understanding of language in general and for the study of the individual languages compared Based on the definitions above it would be said that Contrastive Analysis is a method used to contrast between two or more languages concerning their differences and similarities among the languages. The Goal of Contrastive Analysis describes these languages for describing the language themselves. One of the techniques associated with contrastive linguistic is contrastive analysis. It is generally defined as a systemic comparison of selected linguistic feature two or more language.
The History of Contrastive Analysis
Contrastive Analysis was used extensively in the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) in the 1960s and early 1970s, as a method of explaining why some features of a Target Language were more difficult to acquire than others. Therefore, the difficulty in mastering certain structures in a second language (L2) depended on the difference between the learners’mother language (L1) and the language they were trying to learn. It show that the differences of source language (mother tongue) and target language have significance roles in process of mastering the target language.However the theoretical foundations for what became known as the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis were formulated in Lado’s Linguistics Across Cultures. In this book, Lado claimed that “those elements which are similar to the learner’s native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are different will be difficult”. This involved describing the languages, comparing them and predicting learning difficulties.
The Assumptions related to contrastive analysis
- The Process of Obtaining a SLA is built difficult by interference
- A systematic contrasting between student’s native language and the language to be acquired should expose the differences as well as similarities
- In the reason such a comparison it should be possible to foretell what students will find difficult and what he will find easy
- Such a comparison can serve as a basis for the construction of adequate teaching materials.
It was expected that once the areas of potential difficulty had been mapped out through Contrastive Analysis, it would be possible to design language courses more efficiently and to foretell and describe the patterns which will cause difficulty in learning and those that will not cause difficulty.
The Conclusion of Contrastive Analysis
The knowledge may helpful for the teaching process, such as in designing the method for the teacher, to make it ease. Since from the study might known about the errors that will occur among the learners. The study compares some aspects between languages in view of comparison is a good way of highlighting the characteristics of the things compared. The contrastive study defines these differences and at the same time makes the description of the individual languages more precise